GERMAN POLITICS GUIDE
German System of Government: Federal Parliamentary Republic
Executive power is vested in the Federal Cabinet (Bundesregierung), and federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the Parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder, Germany's regional states). The Judiciary is independent of the Executive and the Legislature. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law), which remained in effect with minor amendments after German reunification in 1990. The Grundgesetz emphasizes the protection of individual liberty in an extensive catalogue of human rights, and divides powers both between the Federal and state levels and among the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches.
Since the creation of the Federal Republic in 1949, German politics have been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).